V/N++:Repetition of Verbs and Nouns

Repetition of verbs:Successive occurrence of the same verb indicates that the action described takes place repeatedly or continuously. The exact meaning is determined by the direction and tempo of the motion. Here are some examples:Indicating continuity or high frequency (an action engaged by the subject multiple times). The exact meaning is determined by the direction:Motion repeated at the same direction/different direction.Give++: to give repeatedly/ to give to multiple individuals. Drop bombs++: to drop bombs repeatedly/to drop bombs at multiple locations Put++: put something up there repeatedly/put something at multiple locations Bomb++: to bomb continuously/to bomb at multiple locations Sell++: to sell something continuously/ to sell something to multiple individuals Indicating that the action is engaged by multiple individuals (more than one subject):

People show up: many people show up/ people show up continuously Indicating that the action takes place regularly or frequently (fixed direction, fixed subject and object): Give me money++: give me money (every month) Payment by installment++: paying loans (regularly) People come and leave++: (he) often comes Repetition of nouns: Stressing: 16++, no++ Indicating plural: Area/location++ = nearby, everywhere There++ = everywhere Year++ = multiple years Wrinkle++ = many wrinkles Seven days++/one week++ = weekly One month++ = monthly Year++ = yearly Repetition of the same sign to indicate the name of a place: Dou (Beans)++ = Madou (a town in Taiwan) Bei (North) = Taipei (Translator’s note: 北 is pronounced with a voiceless unaspirated stop /p/, but modern romanization of Mandarin uses “b” for /p/ and “p” for /ph/. The word Taipei was created using the old system, hence the difference in spelling.) Repetition of adjectives Indicating that multiple entities possess the same quality or are in the same condition: malfunctioning++:Many things are not working. Empty++:There is nobody (at a certain location)/ It’s empty.